Detecting anthropogenic CO2 changes in the interior Atlantic Ocean between 1989 and 2005

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Author(s) Wanninkhof, Rik, Doney, Scott C., Bullister, John L., Levine, Naomi M., Warner, Mark, Gruber, Nicolas
Publication Type Journal Items, Publication Status: Published
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Title Detecting anthropogenic CO2 changes in the interior Atlantic Ocean between 1989 and 2005
Author(s) Wanninkhof, Rik
Doney, Scott C.
Bullister, John L.
Levine, Naomi M.
Warner, Mark
Gruber, Nicolas
Description 25 p.
Journal or Series Title Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans
Volume Number 115
Issue Number C11
Start Page C11028
ISSN 0148-0227
Publisher American Geophysical Union
Publication Place Washington, D.C.
Publication Date 2010-11
Abstract Repeat observations along the meridional Atlantic section A16 from Iceland to 56 degrees S show substantial changes in the total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the ocean between occupations from 1989 through 2005. The changes correspond to the expected increase in DIC driven by the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, but the Delta DIC is more varied and larger, in some locations, than can be explained solely by this process. Concomitant large changes in oxygen (O-2) suggest that processes acting on the natural carbon cycle also contribute to Delta DIC. Precise partial pressure of CO2 measurements suggest small but systematic increases in the bottom waters. To isolate the anthropogenic CO2 component (Delta C-anthro) from Delta DIC, an extended multilinear regression approach is applied along isopycnal surfaces. This yields an average depth-integrated Delta C-anthro of 0.53 +/- 0.05 mol m(-2) yr(-1) with maximum values in the temperate zones of both hemispheres and a minimum in the tropical Atlantic. A higher decadal increase in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory is found for the South Atlantic compared to the North Atlantic. This anthropogenic CO2 accumulation pattern is opposite to that seen for the entire Anthropocene up to the 1990s. This change could perhaps be a consequence of the reduced downward transport of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Atlantic due to recent climate variability. Extrapolating the results for this section to the entire Atlantic basin (63 degrees N to 56 degrees S) yields an uptake of 5 +/- 1 Pg C decade(-1), which corresponds to about 25% of the annual global ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 during this period.
DOI 10.1029/2010JC006251
Additional Notes Received 10 March 2010, Revised 12 July 2010, Accepted 20 August 2010, Published 30 November 2010
Document Type Article
Publication Status Published
Language English
Assigned Organisational Unit(s) 03731
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NEBIS System Number 004289352
Source Database ID WOS-000285019000001
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  author = "Wanninkhof, Rik and Doney, Scott C. and Bullister, John L. and Levine, Naomi M. and Warner, Mark and Gruber, Nicolas",
  title = "{D}etecting anthropogenic {C}{O}2 changes in the interior {A}tlantic {O}cean between 1989 and 2005",
  journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research. C, Oceans",
  year = 2010,
  volume = "115",
  number = "C11",
  pages = "C11028--",
  month = nov,

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