In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter

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Author(s) Wenger, Daniela, Gerecke, Andreas C., Heeb, Norbert V., Schmid, Peter, Hueglin, Christoph, Naegeli, Hanspeter, Zenobi, Renato
Publication Type Journal Items, Publication Status: Published
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Title In vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter
Subtitle Contribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Author(s) Wenger, Daniela
Gerecke, Andreas C.
Heeb, Norbert V.
Schmid, Peter
Hueglin, Christoph
Naegeli, Hanspeter
Zenobi, Renato
Journal or Series Title Journal of applied toxicology
Volume Number 29
Issue Number 3
Start Page 223
End Page 232
ISSN 0260-437X
1099-1263
Publisher Wiley
Publication Place Chichester
Publication Date 2009
Keyword(s) endocrine disruption
air pollution
particulate matter
PM1
estrogenic activity
estrogen receptor
ER-CALUX
hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
hydroxy-PAHs
Abstract Atmospheric particulate matter (PM1) was collected at an urban and a rural site in Switzerland during a hibernal high air pollution episode and was investigated for estrogenicity using an estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay (ER-CALUX). All samples that were tested induced estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Observed estrogenic activities corresponded to 17-estradiol (E2) CALUX equivalent concentrations ranging from 2 to 23 ng E2-CEQ per gram of PM1 (particulate matter of 1 µm aerodynamic diameter) and from 0.07 to 1.25 pg E2-CEQ per m3 of sampled air. There was a strong correlation between the PM1 estrogenicity of the urban and rural sites (r = 0.92). Five hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hydroxy-PAHs), which show structural similarities to E2, were assessed for their estrogenic activity. The following order of estrogenic potency was found: 2-hydroxychrysene > 2-hydroxyphenanthrene > 1-hydroxypyrene > 2-hydroxynaphthalene > 1-hydroxynaphthalene. Three of these hydroxy-PAHs, namely 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxynaphthalene, were detected in all PM1 extracts. However, they contributed only 0.01-0.2% to the overall estrogenic activity. Hence, mainly other estrogenic compounds not yet identified by chemical analysis must be responsible for the observed activity. The temporal trend of PM1 estrogenicity at the urban and rural site, respectively, was compared with the time course of several air pollutants (NO2, NO, SO2, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, solar irradiation, wind velocity). However, specific emission sources and formation processes of atmospheric xenoestrogens could not be elucidated. This study showed that ambient particulate matter contains compounds that are able to interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and potentially also interfere with estrogen-regulated pathways in vivo.
DOI 10.1002/jat.1400
Additional Notes Received 30 July 2008, Revised 3 October 2008, Accepted 9 October 2008, Published Online 19 November 2008
Document Type Article
Publication Status Published
Language English
Assigned Organisational Unit(s) 03430
Organisational Unit(s)
NEBIS System Number 000017842
Source Database ID WOS-000265420400004
PP-49094
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@article{Wngr2009,
  author = "Wenger, Daniela and Gerecke, Andreas C. and Heeb, Norbert V. and Schmid, Peter and Hueglin, Christoph and Naegeli, Hanspeter and Zenobi, Renato",
  title = "{I}n vitro estrogenicity of ambient particulate matter: {C}ontribution of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons",
  journal = "Journal of applied toxicology",
  year = 2009,
  volume = "29",
  number = "3",
  pages = "223--232",
}


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