Aging and yellowing of triterpenoid resin varnishes

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Author(s) Dietemann, Patrick, Higgitt, Catherine, Kälin, Moritz, Edelmann, Michael J., Knochenmuss, Richard, Zenobi, Renato
Publication Type Journal Items, Publication Status: Published
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Title Aging and yellowing of triterpenoid resin varnishes
Subtitle Influence of aging conditions and resin composition
Author(s) Dietemann, Patrick
Higgitt, Catherine
Kälin, Moritz
Edelmann, Michael J.
Knochenmuss, Richard
Zenobi, Renato
Journal or Series Title Journal of cultural heritage
Volume Number 10
Issue Number 1
Start Page 30
End Page 40
ISSN 1296-2074
Publisher Elsevier
Publication Place Paris
Publication Date 2009
Keyword(s) Natural resins
Triterpenoid resins
Mass spectrometry of resins
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of resins
Abstract The aging of natural triterpenoid resins used as varnishes on paintings is still insufficiently understood. Although progress has been made, questions concerning the aging pathways in light vs. darkness, or the correlation of oxidation with yellowing, remain open. The influence of aging conditions, primarily the amount of light, but also resin composition, on the aging process were investigated. The aging reactions are followed using a variety of mass spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques. Aging processes in dammar and mastic varnishes are shown to be more dynamic and extensive than had generally been believed. In unaged bulk resins, large quantities of radicals develop within weeks after application as a varnish, due to the greatly increased surface-to-volume ratio. This is true for all aging conditions, including aging in darkness, and is accompanied by considerable oxidation as well. After a few months, most of the initial triterpenoids are oxidized. Natural aging in light and darkness leads to the same main aging products. All these findings point to the conclusion that aging largely proceeds by the same pathways in both light and darkness, mainly autoxidation. Without light, enough radicals are formed to maintain extensive autoxidation, although more slowly. Thus, differences between light and dark aging mechanisms are much smaller than often believed. In mastic, the absence of the polymeric constituents is found to enhance oxidation, but reduce yellowing. It appears that the polymer acts as a natural radical stabilizer, favoring the pronounced intrinsic yellowing tendency of mastic. The manipulation of resin composition might lead to improved aging properties of triterpenoid resin varnishes.
DOI 10.1016/j.culher.2008.04.007
Additional Notes Received 16 July 2007, Accepted 22 April 2008, Available online 13 March 2009
Document Type Article
Publication Status Published
Language English
Assigned Organisational Unit(s) 03430
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NEBIS System Number 004136280
Source Database ID WOS-000264831900004
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  author = "Dietemann, Patrick and Higgitt, Catherine and K{\"{a}}lin, Moritz and Edelmann, Michael J. and Knochenmuss, Richard and Zenobi, Renato",
  title = "{A}ging and yellowing of triterpenoid resin varnishes: {I}nfluence of aging conditions and resin composition",
  journal = "Journal of cultural heritage",
  year = 2009,
  volume = "10",
  number = "1",
  pages = "30--40",

E-Citations record created: Fri, 02 Apr 2010, 03:35:22 CET