Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models

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Author(s) Laufkötter, Charlotte, Vogt, Meike, Gruber, Nicolas, Aita-Noguchi, M., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Buitenhuis, E., Doney, S.C., Dunne, J., Hashioka, T., Hauck, J., Hirata, T., John, J., Le Quéré, C., Lima, I.D., Nakano, H., Seferian, R., Totterdell, I., Vichi, M., Völker, C.
Publication Type Journal Items, Publication Status: Published
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Title Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models
Author(s) Laufkötter, Charlotte
Vogt, Meike
Gruber, Nicolas
Aita-Noguchi, M.
Aumont, O.
Bopp, L.
Buitenhuis, E.
Doney, S.C.
Dunne, J.
Hashioka, T.
Hauck, J.
Hirata, T.
John, J.
Le Quéré, C.
Lima, I.D.
Nakano, H.
Seferian, R.
Totterdell, I.
Vichi, M.
Völker, C.
Journal or Series Title Biogeosciences
Volume Number 12
Issue Number 23
Start Page 6955
End Page 6984
ISSN 1726-4170
Publisher Copernicus
Publication Place Goettingen
Publication Date 2015-12
Abstract Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model-simulated changes in NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. We use a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth system models with embedded marine ecosystem models and focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, NPP decreases in five out of the nine models over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N), with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40 %. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification leading to reduced phytoplankton growth. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduce NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while NPP in the remaining model changes by less than 0.5 %. While models consistently project increases NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by temperature, but it is also modulated by changes in light, macronutrients and iron as well as grazing. Overall, current projections of future changes in global marine NPP are subject to large uncertainties and necessitate a dedicated and sustained effort to improve the models and the concepts and data that guide their development.
DOI 10.5194/bg-12-6955-2015
Additional Notes Received 19 December 2014, Revised 24 September 2015, Accepted 22 October 2015, Published online 7 December 2015
Document Type Article
Publication Status Published
Language English
Assigned Organisational Unit(s) 03731
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NEBIS System Number 006289717
Source Database ID FORM-1450362243
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  author = "Laufk{\"{o}}tter, Charlotte and Vogt, Meike and Gruber, Nicolas and Aita-Noguchi, M. and Aumont, O. and Bopp, L. and Buitenhuis, E. and Doney, S.C. and Dunne, J. and Hashioka, T. and Hauck, J. and Hirata, T. and John, J. and Le Qu{\'{e}}r{\'{e}}, C. and Lima, I.D. and Nakano, H. and Seferian, R. and Totterdell, I. and Vichi, M. and V{\"{o}}lker, C.",
  title = "{D}rivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models",
  journal = "Biogeosciences",
  year = 2015,
  volume = "12",
  number = "23",
  pages = "6955--6984",
  month = dec,

E-Citations record created: Thu, 17 Dec 2015, 14:24:06 CET