Carbon dynamics of the Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean

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Author(s) Brown, Peter J., Jullion, Loïc, Landschützer, Peter, Bakker, Dorothee C.E., Naveira Garabato, Alberto C., Meredith, Michael P., Torres-Valdés, Sinhue, Watson, Andrew J., Hoppema, Mario, Loose, Brice, Jone, Elizabeth M., Telszewski, Maciej, Jones, Steve D., Wanninkhof, Rik
Publication Type Journal Items, Publication Status: Published
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Title Carbon dynamics of the Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean
Author(s) Brown, Peter J.
Jullion, Loïc
Landschützer, Peter
Bakker, Dorothee C.E.
Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.
Meredith, Michael P.
Torres-Valdés, Sinhue
Watson, Andrew J.
Hoppema, Mario
Loose, Brice
Jone, Elizabeth M.
Telszewski, Maciej
Jones, Steve D.
Wanninkhof, Rik
Journal or Series Title Global Biogeochemical Cycles
Volume Number 29
Issue Number 3
Start Page 288
End Page 306
ISSN 0886-6236
Publisher American Geophysical Union
Publication Place Washington, DC
Publication Date 2015-03
Abstract The accumulation of carbon within the Weddell Gyre and its exchanges across the gyre boundaries are investigated with three recent full-depth oceanographic sections enclosing this climatically important region. The combination of carbon measurements with ocean circulation transport estimates from a box inverse analysis reveals that deepwater transports associated with Warm Deep Water (WDW) and Weddell Sea Deep Water dominate the gyre's carbon budget, while a dual-cell vertical overturning circulation leads to both upwelling and the delivery of large quantities of carbon to the deep ocean. Historical sea surface pCO(2) observations, interpolated using a neural network technique, confirm the net summertime sink of 0.044 to 0.058 +/- 0.010 Pg C yr(-1) derived from the inversion. However, a wintertime outgassing signal similar in size results in a statistically insignificant annual air-to-sea CO2 flux of 0.002 +/- 0.007 Pg C yr(-1) (mean 1998-2011) to 0.012 +/- 0.024 Pg C yr(-1) (mean 2008-2010) to be diagnosed for the Weddell Gyre. A surface layer carbon balance, independently derived from in situ biogeochemical measurements, reveals that freshwater inputs and biological drawdown decrease surface ocean inorganic carbon levels more than they are increased by WDW entrainment, resulting in an estimated annual carbon sink of 0.033 +/- 0.021 Pg C yr(-1). Although relatively less efficient for carbon uptake than the global oceans, the summertime Weddell Gyre suppresses the winter outgassing signal, while its biological pump and deepwater formation act as key conduits for transporting natural and anthropogenic carbon to the deep ocean where they can reside for long time scales.
DOI 10.1002/2014GB005006
Additional Notes Published online by: Wiley
Received 6 October 2014, Accepted 15 February 2015, Accepted article online 19 February 2015, Published online 19 March 2015
Document Type Article
Publication Status Published
Language English
Assigned Organisational Unit(s) 03731
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NEBIS System Number 000041178
Source Database ID WOS-000354382600002
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  author = "Brown, Peter J. and Jullion, Lo{\"{i}}c and Landsch{\"{u}}tzer, Peter and Bakker, Dorothee C.E. and Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. and Meredith, Michael P. and Torres-Vald{\'{e}}s, Sinhue and Watson, Andrew J. and Hoppema, Mario and Loose, Brice and Jone, Elizabeth M. and Telszewski, Maciej and Jones, Steve D. and Wanninkhof, Rik",
  title = "{C}arbon dynamics of the {W}eddell {G}yre, {S}outhern {O}cean",
  journal = "Global Biogeochemical Cycles",
  year = 2015,
  volume = "29",
  number = "3",
  pages = "288--306",
  month = mar,

E-Citations record created: Mon, 08 Jun 2015, 08:48:06 CET